## Search form

### Board of Trustees, Committees, Governance

The AAS Board of Trustees establishes formal positions of the AAS. Any member may suggest topics appropriate for development of a position and the appropriate committees will consider the issues and make a recommendation to the Council on the matter. The more recent official position statements of the AAS are available online.

### Divisions of the AAS

The rules for establishing a Division are defined in Article VII of the Bylaws of the AAS. The Bylaws can be found online and in the printed version of the AAS Membership Directory.

No Division publishes its own journal. The DPS has a formal relation with the journal Icarus.

Divisions hold meetings that may be attended by any AAS member. The DPS and the DDA each hold one meeting a year separate from the AAS general Meetings. The HEAD and the SPD meet occasionally apart from and occasionally with the AAS. On occasion the SPD has also met jointly with the American Geophysical Union. The Historical Astronomy Division usually meets jointly with the AAS. Schedules for Division Meetings may be found on the Division websites.

### Education - General Astronomy

Astronomy is a physical science concerned with the smallest particles and the largest natural objects. The name Astronomy comes from the Greek roots Astr- and -nomia to literally mean "name stars". Astronomy is the study of everything outside of the earth's atmosphere and their chemical and physical properties.

Astronomy is a science that studies everything outside of the earth's atmosphere, such as planets, stars, asteroids, galaxies; and the properties and relationships of those celestial bodies. Astronomers base their studies on research and observation. Astrology, on the other hand, is the belief that the positioning of the stars and planets affect the way events occur on earth. If you're interested in the solar system and the planets, other celestial objects like asteroids and comets, other galaxies and the rest of the universe, what makes up space, and the possibility of alien life or space travel, astronomy is the field you're considering.

There is no place where you can purchase a star. There are a few businesses which claim to sell or name stars, but the names they give are not recognized by anyone in the scientific community. Stars are named by the International Astronomical Union, headquartered in Paris, France. They are given numbers determined by their exact location in the sky. This system is organized so that it is most beneficial to the scientists who are studying them. Occasionally a comet or other solar system object is named after people, often by or after the person who discovered it, but stars are not. If you do locate a company trying to sell you a star, know that the star they "sell" you will never be known as your star by anyone but you. There is nothing stopping them from "selling" the same star over and over again. Here is the general policy that the IAU has for naming all other objects in the sky.

The AAS staff does not monitor the sky and most likely can not identify the event you witnessed. The best resources would be Sky and Telescope magazine's "Monthly Sky Highlights," the Ask the Space Scientist website, or your local planetarium or science center.

Contact the closest science center or planetarium for advice about how to determine if it is one. They will have to examine the item before rendering an opinion.

Transient astronomical phenomena such as comets, novae, supernovae, etc. can be reported to the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. Meteor(ite)/fireball reports to the International Meteor Organization. UFO reports to the National Institute for Discovery Science.

### Education - Learn

Most research astronomers have doctorate degrees in physics or astronomy and also bachelor's and/or master's degrees in a physical science, usually physics or astronomy. It takes about 10 years of education beyond normal high school education to become a research astronomer. Astronomers are usually comfortable with computers, both usage and programming, in addition to being knowledgeable about basic science, especially physics. They also have extensive mathematical knowledge.

The web makes looking for colleges and universities easier than it used to be -- most institutions (and astronomy and physics departments) have comprehensive web pages. In addition there are websites that have already gathered a lot of this information. Two sources of information on colleges, with links to sites that list scholarships, grants, and other financial aid, are U.S. College Search and MatchCollege, which list thousands of US colleges and universities including school contact information, website addresses, enrollment information, and student demographics, as well as career guidance and financial aid information.

For Graduate School information try GradSchoolShopper, which lets you search for graduate schools in physics and related fields, e.g. astronomy, by degree (masters or doctorate) and/or location. It also provides links to career advice and resources.

Attend a school with a good physics or astronomy department and be prepared to work hard! Although it is hard to become an astronomer, most who get graduate degrees in the field are employed (fewer than 2% are unemployed) and most feel that their graduate education prepared them well for their current job.

There is no easy answer to your question as there isn't a one-size-fits-all program. Each department, and each school, offers different programs, opportunities, and environments. You will benefit from spending some time researching colleges and universities; they have web pages describing their programs, the schools, and so forth. You may wish to contact the department chair for additional information on the schools in which you are interested. The AAS maintains a list of programs that offer astronomy-related degrees.

How much school you go through depends on what you want to do with your degree. Typically an undergraduate degree requires four years of school, but a lot of positions in astronomy require a PhD, which is on average six more years of school.

At this time, the American Astronomical Society offers no scholarships. However, we do award the Bok Prize in Astronomy annually to the top two astronomy science fair projects in the International Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF). First prize is US $5000, second prize is US$3000. You may write to Science Service, Inc., 1719 N Street, NW, Washington DC 20036, to request a copy of the "Student Handbook for Precollege Science and Engineering Projects", and for information on "Intel ISEF participation."

If you are a high school student who wants to become an astronomer, the best advice is to study hard. It's important to take a lot of academic classes in high school if you want a career in any of the sciences, so make sure you fit in four years of science, math, english, and social studies. You should read magazines like Sky and Telescope or Astronomy and follow the new developments in astronomy that make it into the news. Any readings or research that you do early on can only help you later. Astronomy books are located in the 520s and Physics books are in the 530s according to the library's Dewey Decimal system.

A good place to get more information is the AAS Career Brochure which includes information about an education in astronomy and preparing for a career.

The AAS is not a reference library, however when we receive inquiries we will do our best to steer you toward reasonable sources of reliable information. We do not have regular staff dedicated to this, so do not rely on an immediate response. Such queries should be directed to education@aas.org. There are many sources for school projects. Start with your school or local community library. NASA's site for students is particularly helpful: Kindergarten to 4th grade, 5th to 8th grade, grades 9-12, and post-secondary. Other useful websites include: Ask the Astronomer, Ask the Space Scientist, and Amazing Space (Space Telescope Science Institute).

Great! The best place to start is at the American Association of Amateur Astronomers. They offer tons of information about amateur astronomy, conventions, magazine subscriptions, and more. Access to much of the information is free, but membership to the society will cost an annual fee.

A great resource for information about telescopes is the Antique Telescope Society.

The AAS does not give out names of astronomers. However, there's probably an astronomer near you. Check with your local community college, four-year college or university, planetarium, or science museum. Be sure to provide your name, school, and a specific description about your project. If you're working with time constraints, some online interviews with astronomers are available.

Meetings: Scientific results may be presented at the regular meetings of the AAS and its Divisions. AAS members can present a paper at any AAS meeting. Nonmembers may present only once and must be sponsored by a Full Member who is familiar with the work to be presented.

Journals: AAS journals publish significant and original research papers. Papers are accepted from both members and nonmembers. Each paper is subjected to a review by one or more qualified referees. The decision to publish or not publish the paper rests entirely with the editor of the journal. Papers must be submitted in accord with the instructions appropriate for each journal. Prospective authors should consult the journal's website for submission instructions. Any given research article may only be submitted to one journal at a time. An author must wait until one journal has rendered a decision on an article, or must formally withdraw the article before submitting to another journal.

The Astrophysical Journal and Supplement

The Astronomical Journal

Preprint servers: There are preprint servers that permit any author to post an article for consideration by the research community. The AAS does not operate any of these services, nor does it specifically endorse any of them. Articles posted as preprints in this way may subsequently be submitted for publication in the AAS journals.

### Employment

The AAS career brochure, A New Universe to Explore: Careers in Astronomy, is available online and as a booklet (contact the Society to request copies). This guide covers all of the most frequently asked questions like what astronomers do, what kind of astronomers are there, how easy is it to get a job, how much do astronomers get paid, etc. Other websites with useful information about a career in astronomy include the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) website and the Astronomy Cafe.

You should look at the AAS Internships & Summer Opportunities page. You may also be interested in the National Science Foundation (NSF) Research Experience for Undergraduates page.

The AAS publishes a Job Register, which is the premier location for employers who are seeking astronomers. The Job Register is published on the first of each month and usually contains about 50 or more jobs each month.

The AAS provides a Job Center at each AAS meeting. The Job Center serves as a meeting place for employers and job seekers, as well as being a posting location for new jobs and jobs in the most recent Job Register. Interviews can be carried out and many job seekers have found it is a great place to network and meet potential employers.

At AAS meetings, the Committee on Employment tries to organize one or more sessions that deal with career issues. Authors of specialized books for physical scientists who are seeking employment have been popular sessions in the past. The AAS also organizes a career seminar at the winter meeting, which takes place on the day before the meeting officially begins. At this seminar, participants can learn how to search for a job and the ins and outs of networking, writing resumes, and other information.

Finally, the AAS provides links to a large number of career-related resources and a special page of links to astronomers who are working in industry or a non-traditional career.

I want a job as an Astronomer. Can the AAS find me one? In a word, no. But, by attending one of our career seminars, learning how to perform a job search, and regularly tracking opportunities in the Job Register, you stand a good chance of finding the kind of job you want.

### Finance

Yes, the AAS is qualified under section 501(c)(3) of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code to receive tax-deductible donations.

Yes, the AAS administers several grant programs. The International Travel Grant (ITG) funds travel to international scientific meetings for US-based astronomers. Generally, the ITG only funds the cost of a round-trip airline ticket. FAMOUS Travel Grants offer opportunities for members to secure funding to travel to a Society meeting in order to increase the number of astronomers from historically underrepresented groups. Finally, the Chrétien International Research Grant provides up to 20,000 each year for one or more individuals or groups to be used for the support of international observational astronomy with the emphasis on long-term, international visits. The Chrétien awards are open to astronomers around the world. Since requirements sometimes change, it is best to check the AAS grants webpage for the latest information, requirements, and deadlines. The deadlines vary, so be sure to check the webpage for each grant. Generally, the Chrétien applications are due on 1 April each year. The International Travel Grants are currently due in January and June each year. Any astronomer may apply for the Chrétien grant. Only astronomers working at US institutions may apply for the International Travel Grant. All of the grants have reporting requirements. Typically, they include receipts for travel and other expenditures and some kind of final report describing the work the grant funded. Reports are generally due within about a year of the grant award date. See the grants page for details. This requirement varies from institution to institution. However, the International Travel Grant is paid in the form of a check made out to the individual and no institutional overhead can be charged to this grant. The AAS hopes that all institutions will value the benefits of these grant programs to their researchers and waive any claim to overhead. If overhead must be paid, the AAS will not issue the grant to the recipient. ### Grants - International Travel Grants The International Travel Grant program funds travel to international scientific meetings. Usually funding is limited to round-trip, coach-class airfare between the applicant's home institution and the airport closest to the meeting. Some exceptions for necessary ground transportation are possible. No. Funds from this grant cannot be used to fund travel to any AAS or AAS Division meeting, whether held internationally or in the United States. You must hold a doctorate in astronomy or a closely related science and work at a US institution. Some possibility for funding graduate student travel does exist. Applications from students who have not yet completed their PhD should be accompanied by an advisor recommendation letter. You also must be traveling to an international scientific meeting and your application must be approved by the ITG committee. Apply online or download the application form from the AAS International Travel Grant page. Please see the International Travel Grant page for the current deadlines. You may apply for an International Travel Grant as often as you like, but you can only receive one travel grant per year, except in years in which an IAU General Assembly takes place when you can apply once for funds to travel to the IAU GA and once for fund to travel to another meeting. So, in IAU GA years only, you may receive two grants, one for the IAU General Assembly and one for another meeting. The letter from your advisor needs to make clear to the committee why it is beneficial both to you personally as a graduate student and to the broader astronomical community that you attend the meeting in question. Letters should be no longer than one or two pages. No. The ITG Application form is a comprehensive form for the ITG program. The General Assembly (or GA) only occurs every three years. If you are attending an IAU sponsored meeting, or any other meeting, simply write the title and dates on the lines below the General Assembly check box. About one month after the proposal deadline, a check will be mailed to grant recipients. If you need funds more quickly, some exceptions can be made and expedited check delivery carried out. Yes. You must turn in a brief description of the meeting you attended (usually one page or less) highlighting the benefit of your attendance. You must also provide receipts and plane tickets to prove you completed travel to the meeting. The program will only fund travel to one international scientific meeting per person per year, plus attendance at the IAU General Assembly. In other words, when there is an IAU GA, you may apply for two trips, one to the GA and one elsewhere. When there is no IAU GA, you may only request funding for one international meeting. However, if some meetings occur close in time, the traveler may attend multiple meetings on one travel grant as long as the International Travel Grant funds are used only for two international travel legs (there and back only. Not between meetings and not between overseas locations). If you have specific questions, please contact Kevin Marvel. The program only funds round-trip, coach-class airfare to the meeting; it does not provide additional funds for living expenses or lodging. Unless you receive prior approval, you must return any unused portion of your grant. Please make checks payable to the American Astronomical Society and attach your check to the front of your final report. Unless you have prior approval for a higher ticket amount, you must pay for the remaining balance from your own money. Your final report must contain a brief summary of the meeting you attended, including a description of your participation and the benefits the meeting had for you professionally. Further, you should include your plane tickets or some other form of proof that you completed the travel along with any receipts. Please send your final report to: AAS Executive Office 2000 Florida Avenue, NW, Suite 300 Washington, DC 20009 aas.grants@aas.org A simple acknowledgement is adequate. For example: "I acknowledge the support of the American Astronomical Society and the National Science Foundation in the form of an International Travel Grant, which enabled me to attend this conference." ### Journals and Publications The AAS requires that you get the permission from the author and send a notification of the material to be used and where it will be used to permissions@iop.org. Please see our copyright policy. The Astrophysics Data System, sponsored by NASA, has an extensive, searchable archive of data on astronomical publications. We only publish the abstracts. We do not publish full articles based on meeting presentations in the Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society (BAAS). You could search the NASA Astrophysics Data System to see if the BAAS author published in other journals on the same topic. You can also search the web for the author's institution and see if anything is published on the author's own website. The AAS Photo-Bulletins are available through the Astrophysics Data System. To retrieve the issue, enter volume#24, highlight the American Astronomical Society Photo-Bulletin and hit the Send Request button. The AAS will NOT review or comment upon research manuscripts unless they are submitted for publication in one of the AAS journals in accord with the instructions for that journal. The AAS will only publish book reviews for books that cover astronomical education, career development, and public policy. Educational book reviews may be submitted to the Astronomy Education Review. The AAS News Digest occasionally contains summaries of non-scientific books in the areas of career development or public policy. The purpose of these summaries is to alert our members to the existence of publications which they may not find in any other way and which the staff judges to be of interest. It is not intended as a critical review. Advertising is accepted in the annual AAS Calendar and on the AER site. Corporate Members and Publisher Affiliates may advertise in the AAS Meeting Program booklet. The AAS does not accept paid advertising in its journals, newsletter, Membership Directory, or website. AAS members receive Physics Today, which does accept advertising. ### Journals - Author Instructions In conventional mathematical notation, an italic letter with a subscript generally denotes a variable taken at or with reference to some condition (indexed by the subscript). Thus, R om , the subscript m appearing here in the same way as for other single italic variables, would be the correct notation for, say, observed resonance, optical radius, etc. ApJ generally prefers to set two-letter abbreviations roman (not italic) within equations, to distinguish them from strings of variables: thus EM for emission measure is set roman so it is not misread as "energy times mass." We have adopted the roman abbreviations Ro, Ra, Re for Rossby, Raleigh, and Reynolds numbers (and so for other named variables), as being most consistent with our general notation and least prone to misreading. Then, following conventional notation, magnetic Reynolds numbers are set Re AAS journals close up dependent prefixes (non-, ultra-, sub-, super-, multi-, etc.). Multi- is a dependent prefix (you cannot say "the cell is multi"), and so is closed up. But "single" is not a dependent prefix; it is normal adjective (you can say "the cell is single"), and so the proper form is a hyphenated compound adjective, single-cell. Compound terms such as "early type," "V band," and "intermediate redshift" are hyphenated when they are used as adjectives (as in "many early-type stars were seen in intermediate-redshift V-band observations") but open as nouns ("we find many early types at intermediate redshifts in the V band"), following conventional English style for compound nouns and adjectives. AAS journals follow standard practice in capitalizing generic terms that form a part of a proper name of a distinct, unique geographical or celestial region. "Belt" is capitalized because it is part of the name of the Kuiper Belt, a distinct region in the solar system, in the same way that "Valley" is part of the place name "Red River Valley." However, although Galactic is capitalized when it refers to the Milky Way, the bar is (in the opinion of the Editors of the ApJ ) not as yet a distinct mappable named region, but rather a general descriptive term, and so it is not capitalized. AAS journals follow the Chicago Manual of Style in not capitalizing the names of theories, concepts, and ideas, such as "fundamental plane." "Comprise" means "contains, is made up of, embraces": the whole comprises the parts, the parts compose the whole. "Is comprised of" should properly be rephrased as either "comprises" or "is composed of" ("the galaxy comprises many stars" or "the galaxy is composed of many stars"). Split infinitives are an old chimaera of English grammar. Actually, it is not true that it is illegal to split infinitives in English. To quote the Chicago Manual of Style , "Although from about 1850 to 1925 many grammarians stated otherwise, it is now widely acknowledged that adverbs sometimes justifiably separate the "to" from the principal verb." (5.106) ApJ , as a modern journal, is happy to concur. English has a strong preference not to split transitive verbs (such as "confirm") from their objects ("the result"); in particular, transitive+object pairs should not be interrupted by adverbs ("empirically"). The copyeditor could also have fixed this sentence by moving the adverb to the end, rather than the beginning ("to confirm the result empirically"), but having adverbs precede rather than trail verbs is a more vigorous style. Physics, while plural in derivation, is generally construed as a singular noun except when referring to several "physics" (i.e., two or more different systems of physics). In this sentence, where the meaning is "uncertainty in the field of physics," the singular form "needs" would be correct. Correct the proof as you normally would but also contact Dr. Greg Schwarz with the details of the table changes when you return proofs to the Press That depends on the number of changes you need to make. If it is only a few minor corrections then you should wait until you are contacted by the copy editor or when you receive the proofs. If the changes are extensive, contact the editorial offices so that the paper can be pulled from its assigned issue. The revised paper will have to be sent to the scientific editor to review the changes. Once the changes are accepted, the paper will be assigned to another issue. Image programs such as Adobe Photoshop can be used to make the conversion. CMYK stands for cyan, magenta, yellow, and black. Most computer-generated figure files are created using the RGB (red, green, blue) color model, which is used for devices, such as computer monitors, that create color with light. The CMYK system uses the 4 process colors used in printing, and is therefore the necessary format for figure files to be used for printing. Yes. This link will take you to a web based program that will take your formatted or delimited data and convert it into a machine readable table The specifics are: • Customers based in the EU who supply a valid VAT registration number do not get charged VAT. • Customers based in the EU who do not supply a valid VAT registration number do get charged VAT at the UK prevailing rate. • Customers based in the UK (not charities) do get charged VAT at the UK prevailing rate. • Customer in the rest of the world (ROW) do not get charged VAT. Nearly all EU research institutions possess a valid VAT registration number, so VAT should not be charged for page charges for the overwhelming majority of page charge contributors. ### Journals - AASTeX The basic version "requirement" of AASTeX v5.x is a running LaTeX 2e system. We can be a little more granular than that, because aastex.cls asks for a LaTeX format file of 1995/12/01 or later. (That was the earliest version we had for testing). Format files dated earlier than 1995/12/01 will produce a warning message and may cause LaTeX errors. Did you download it with Netscape 6? Users have reported that Netscape 6 corrupts the tar ball during download. Try a different browser or download the ZIP file instead. Only the aastex.cls file has to be copied anywhere. There is a "make install" capability for Unix systems, but one has to have the installation directory properly identified in the Makefile, and of course proper permissions are required. In the Makefile for AASTeX: Set INSTALLDIR to the directory that aastex.cls should be installed in. It would be canonical for it to go in the tex/latex/misc area. So you probably only need to change the leading portion of this, once you know where your texmf installation is rooted. INSTALLDIR = /usr/share/texmf/tex/latex/misc If you have tetex installed, you can run "texconfig conf" to see what TEXMFMAIN is. When the INSTALLDIR parameter is set correctly in the Makefile, you can just type "make install" in the usual way. You must have the necessary write permission in the system area where LaTeX files are installed. Modern TeX installations often have a cache of all available files. This cache has to be updated after new files are added in the directory hierarchy. If you have teTeX, you must type "texconfig rehash" to update the necessary table - this takes proper permissions. If you have a TeX installation other than teTeX, you will have to explore its instructions for installing extra packages and for subsequently updating the cache. Your problem may be that DOS is having trouble with the line endings in the .sty or .cls files. Convert the line endings to DOS—for instance, by opening each file with the DOS "edit" command and saving it—and the buffer message will probably go away. If it doesn't, you'll need to consult the documentation for your particular LaTeX installation to figure out how to increase the buffer size. Dave Meisel has provided a README on how to use AASTeX with OzTeX, as well as an Excalibur dictonary containing most of the AASTeX extensions not contained in the original Excalibur dictionary: Yes. You will need a working Windows LaTeX installation. One popular Windows package is MikTeX. A free download is available at http://www.miktex.org. Consult the MikTeX documentation for instructions on how to install the AASTeX class file. Make sure that your \tablecomments, \tablerefs, and and \tablenotetext command appear after the \enddata command. Older versions of AASTeX were more forgiving of the commands being misplaced, but as of v5.2, they must appear after \enddata. Download and install the most recent version of the package. The \rotate command was broken in older versions of the package. Note that if you view the typeset table with the xdvi LaTeX previewer, it may look like it is running off the page. It will, however, print properly. If you want to view the table without printing, redirect the dvips output to a PostScript file and use a PS viewer like Ghostview to browse the output. Your \rotate command needs to be in the table preamble, after your \begin{deluxetable}. If you use \rotate outside of the deluxetable environment, every table following the command will be rotated. Use the \tabletypesize command in your table preamble: \tabletypesize{\scriptsize} See the package documentation for the available type size options. You can make the columns tighter by using \setlength with the \tabcolsep argument. For example, \setlength{\tabcolsep}{0.02in} In some instances, you may be able to tighten the columns enough to keep the table upright. Download and install the most recent version of the package. As of v5.2, table end notes will break to a new page if they are too long to fit below the table body and users may also force table breaks with the \tablebreak command. Be warned that despite claims to the contrary in previous versions of the package documentation, the LaTeX \\* command for keeping lines of a deluxetable together on a page does not work with deluxetable. If you don't like where AASTeX is breaking the table, use \tablebreak to force a break. Download and install the most recent version of the package. A bug in older versions of the package broke stand-alone tables. This was fixed in v5.2. If a \cutinhead appears immediately after the \startdata in a deluxetable, the text may format flush left or a blank row may be inserted above the head. In this instance, use \multicolumn with alignment "c" instead. \cutinhead will work as expected if it appears elsewhere in the table. No, athough decimal alignment can be faked by using the TeX \phantom command to adjust the alignment cell by cell. Another option is to switch to the standard "table" enviroment and use the LaTeX 2e dcolumn package. This macro was reintroduced in v5.2, so download and install the most recent version of the package if you want to use it. You may, however, wish to consult the graphics documentation first. In most cases, you should be able to place your graphics in your paper using \plotone, \plottwo, or \includegraphics. Put \AA in an \mbox: \mbox{\AA}$ Instead of using \plotone or \plottwo, call the graphicx package command \includegraphics with the angle option. For instance, to rotate a figure 90°, you would issue the command \includegraphics[angle=90]{f1.eps} Make sure you have put parentheses around the date in the square-bracketed arguments of your \bibitems: \bibitem[Abt (1990)]{abt90} If you do not delimit the date with parentheses in every \bibitem, natbib won't handle the cross-references properly and will put a number in place of the year or the whole citation depending on whether you used \citet or \citep. Even just one missing set of parentheses will cause the cross-referencing to fail, so check the argument of every single \bibitem in the reference list if you are having this problem. Once you have inserted the missing parentheses, delete the .aux file and LaTeX as usual. Yes. Jonathan Baker from UC Berkeley has written a bibliography style package called astronat that works with AASTeX. The package and documentation are available on the ADS website: http://ads.harvard.edu/pubs/bibtex/astronat Please note that because AASTeX v5.x allows natbib-style \cite commands, you no longer need to run the nat2jour.pl script on your document when preparing it for submission to the AAS journals. In addition, when you submit your paper to the AAS journals or the PASP, be sure to include the .bbl file with your manuscript. Manuscripts cannot be processed if the .bbl file is not included. (See the astronat documentation for more information on preparing your BibTeX document for electronic submission.) Download and install the most recent version of the package. In previous versions of the package, \email behaved like the old \authoremail command when used in the front matter of the document and produced no printed output. This behavior was changed in v5.0.2. Download and install the most recent version of the package. The behavior of \email has been changed so that the text of the email address will print without the "mailto:" prepend. Download and install the most recent version of the package. The latest version of the package will allow abstracts to run to more than one page in the manuscript and preprint styles. The AAS does not maintain one, but Alexey Vikhlinin has written a LaTeX 2e style package, emulateapj5.sty, that approximates the look of an ApJ page. It is available at http://hea-www.harvard.edu/~alexey/ Make sure that you have AASTeX v5.2 or later and then use the "longabstract" option when you invoke AASTeX: \documentclass[preprint2,longabstract]{aastex} This option should only be used in preprint2 mode and only when the abstract is too long to fit on the title page. Using it otherwise will have unpredictable consequences. ### Journals and Publications - Subscriptions The AAS News Digest, an email newsletter with the latest news from the AAS and the astronomical sciences, is sent to Society members every two weeks. If you are a member and not receiving the AAS News Digest emails, please contact Crystal Tinch. The Astronomical JournalAstrophysical JournalAstrophysical Journal Letters and Astrophysical Journal Supplement are all included. The member subscription rate for the AJ/ApJ/ApJS Electronic Package is US$25. See the member dues and subscriptions page for updates.

Members should contact the AAS Membership Department. Nonmembers should contact IOP Customer Service.

### Media and Press

Journalists: See Join the Media Mailing List

Notable press-releases are posted to the AAS homepage under Astronomy in the News. Please note that inclusion in Astronomy in the News does not imply endorsement by the American Astronomical Society.

### Meetings

AAS meetings take place twice each year, once in early January and once in late May or early June. See Future Meetings page for dates. See Division websites for divisional meeting dates.

Meetings are held in a variety of locations, which are chosen by the Board of Trustees in response to proposals from interested institutions. See the Future Meetings page for the locations of upcoming meetings.

AAS meetings are dynamic gatherings of professional astronomers from around the world. The winter meetings typically boast 2,000 participants or more. The four days are filled with scientific sessions, both poster and oral, as well as invited sessions from prominent researchers with exciting results. The summer meetings have topical sessions, which are more lengthy oral sessions focused on particular topics. The meeting program is decided upon by the three Vice-Presidents with logistical details provided by the AAS meeting coordinator.

The Rodger Doxsey Travel Prize provides graduate students or postdocs within one year of receiving or receipt of their PhD a monetary prize to enable the oral presentation of their dissertation research at a winter meeting of the AAS. Other than the Doxsey prize, the the AAS does not have funds to support travel by members or nonmembers to its meetings. The AAS International Travel Grant Program only provides support for US-based astronomers to travel to meetings held outside the US. Four of the AAS Divisions (DDA, SPD, DPS, and HAD) do offer Student Stipend Awards for travel to their Divisional Meetings.

### Membership

The AAS is primarily a society of researchers in astronomy and it wishes to assure that the members meet minimum qualifications in the area. Nomination by two Full Members of the AAS who are familiar with the qualifications of the nominee is one way of achieving this goal.

The AAS will permit use of the mailing list by commercial and non-commercial organizations. Details of products or events must be submitted and judged to be of potential interest to a significant fraction of the membership. Authorization is given for one-time use of the list on each occasion. A small fee is charged to cover handling. The AAS mailing list is never sold to firms unrelated to astronomy or science.

The AAS does not distribute the email addresses of its members for any purpose. If a notice is deemed to be of sufficient interest and urgency to warrant email distribution, the AAS will distribute it as part of our regular Electronic Announcement Series. Commercial advertising will not be distributed.

The Policy Regarding the Use of Membership Data by the AAS is posted online and distributed with the yearly renewal notices.

### Miscellaneous

English is preferred, and we will do our best to deal with inquiries in Spanish: any other language will be handled only at our convenience.

The AAS provides discounted AAS journal subscriptions to institutions in many developing countries. In addition, astronomers from any country may apply for Chrétien Research Grants, however the grant is not limited to those from developing countries and is often very competitive.

### Public Policy

Public policy is a catchall phrase that includes actions of and interactions with both Congress and the Executive branch. It also captures activities of the AAS that can have an impact in the wider arena of public life, such as creating and endorsing statements related to science, science policy, or other issues.

The government has other impacts on astronomy besides the obvious one of providing funds for research and research facilities. Policies on education, such as stipend levels allowed under research grants, or student loan tax credits are both set by the government. Policies regarding land use can have an obvious impact on astronomy. Governmental panels can make decisions about how many federal agencies should fund astronomy. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) manages spectrum use and can have both helpful and harmful impacts on astronomy. At the local level, lighting policies can have both harmful and helpful outcomes for astronomy. In education, school boards can pass regulations preventing certain scientific ideas from being taught in local schools or printed in textbooks. The possibilities for both good and bad actions by government at all levels are tremendous.

Occasionally, an action by government that could have a negative (or positive) impact on astronomy must be stopped (or supported). At these times, a rapid, grassroots-level action on the part of the AAS membership can create a truly positive result in Congress or in other areas of government.

When one of these times arrives, the Policy Fellow works with the Executive Officer and the Committee on Astronomy and Public Policy creates an AAS Action Alert. This is then emailed to the appropriate sub-group of the AAS membership.

This email alert system is not utilized lightly. The alert system is only used when direct action on the part of our members themselves will have a tremendous impact. Typically, the action called for is writing a letter to or calling legislators on a specific issue. The alerts are structured for readability and ease of understanding. Comments on the alerts are always welcome.

No. A single letter to a Senator or Congressman once per year is simply not enough to make your elected representative notice your needs or issues. Regular communication can be tremendously beneficial and the AAS strongly encourages AAS members to develop personal relationships with their elected officials or their staff.

For an issue to become important in a Congressional office, approximately five letters must arrive in a given week. This number is a bit larger for Senatorial offices. When an AAS Action Alert is sent out, we have heard from Congressional offices that many hundreds of letters (from AAS members only in several cases) have convinced the member of Congress to take action on the issue.

To establish a personal contact, it is better to actually meet with the member's staff in Washington or at their home office. Contact the Policy Fellow for help in setting up appointments or information on particular members of Congress.

If you have a public policy question that isn't listed here, then you can email AAS Public Policy or call the Director of Public Policy (202-328-2010 x120) or the John N. Bahcall Public Policy Fellow (202-328-2010 x113). We'll do our best to provide you with the information that you need.