35th Meeting of the AAS Division on Dynamical Astronomy, April 2004
Session 1 Extra-solar Planets
Oral, Tuesday, April 20, 2004, 9:30am-12:45pm,

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[1.07] Scattering of Planetesimals by a Planet

A. Higuchi (National Astronomical observatory Japan/Graduate School of Kobe University), E. Kokubo (National Astronomical Observatory Japan), T. Mukai (Graduate School of Kobe University)

We investigate the scattering process of planetesimals by a planet by numerical orbital integration, aiming at construction of theory for the comet (Oort) cloud formation. The standard scenario of the formation of the Oort cloud can be divided into three dynamical stages:(1)The eccentricity and the aphelion distance of planetesimals are increased by planetary perturbation. (2)The eccentricity is reduced and the perihelion distance is increased by the external forces such as the galactic tide. (3)The inclination is randomized also by the external forces.

We model the first stage of this scenario as the restricted three-body problem and calculate the orbital evolution of planetesimals scattered by a planet. There are 4 kinds of outcomes for scattering of planetesimals by a planet: to collide with the planet, to fall onto the central star, to escape from the planetary system, and to remain in bound orbits. Here we consider the escape efficiency as the efficiency of formation of highly eccentric planetesimals, which are candidates for the members of the comet cloud. We obtain the dependence of the escape/collision probability on orbital parameters of the planetesimals and the planet. Using these results, we calculate the efficiencies of escaping from the planetary system and collision with the planet. For example, for the minimum-mass disk model, the inner and massive planet is more efficient to eject planetesimals and increase their eccentricities. Planetesimals with high eccentricities and low inclinations are easier to be ejected from the planetary system. We preset the empirical fitting formulae of these efficiencies as a function of the orbital parameters of the planetesimals and the planets. We apply the results to the solar system and discuss the efficiency of the outer giant planets.

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Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 36 #2
© 2004. The American Astronomical Soceity.