**AAS 202nd Meeting, May 2003**

*Session 31 Observational Probes of Dark Energy*

Topical Associated Poster, Tuesday, May 27, 2003, 10:00am-6:30pm, West Exhbit Hall
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## [31.02] Origin and Acceleration of the Universe without Singularities and Dark Energy

*N.N. Gorkavyi (Crimean Astrophysical Observatory)*

In the latest version of Einstein's general relativistic
theory, gravitational waves have no gravitational mass.
After 1919 Einstein deleted the gravitational energy
pseudo-tensor from his equations (“The Meaning of
Relativity, 1953, 4th Edition, Princeton, p.133). For an
observer falling in a black hole, density fluctuations
increase during collapse due to gravitational instability
which create a gas of smaller black holes (Banks &
Fischler, Black Crunch, hep-th/0212113). Gravitational
radiation is a strong function of radius: 1/r^{5}. For a
co-moving observer, all surrounding matter must be converted
into radiation during collapse. In a Universe described by
10^{22} (or 2^{73}) black hole pair mergers, 99.999992%
(or 1.0–0.8^{73}) of gravitational mass can be lost after
a sequence of 73 mergers- assuming that 20% of mass in each
merger is transformed into gravitational radiation. We
conclude: 1. Infalling matter cannot reach singularities:
gravitationally unstable matter will be converted into
gravitational radiation as it approaches. 2. Inner observers
will escape from any black holes: when emission of
gravitational radiation inside the BH exceeds
dE/dt>c^{5}/(2G), the Schwarzschild radius Rs=2GE/c^{4}
contracts faster than the observer's descent rate
(dRs/dt>c). 3. After the Big Crunch, the Universe is a
dense cloud of gravitational waves in a flat space. 4. The
Big Bang is an expansion of a cloud of gravitational
radiation in a flat space after the Big Crunch, and the
creation of matter is due to quantum polarization of the
vacuum. 5. Fast dissipation of gravitational mass of the
Universe during the Big Crunch: m=exp(-to/T) with a retarded
potential to=t-R/c produces the powerful repulsive
gravitational force a=(Gm/R)' = -Gm/R^{2} + Gm/(RcT) for
distance cT < R < ct. This provides a repulsive force
response for the inflation period after the Big Bang and for
the current acceleration of the Universe without any unknown
fields and dark energy.

The author(s) of this abstract have provided an email address
for comments about the abstract:
simeiz@aol.com

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© 2003. The American Astronomical Soceity.