**AAS 200th meeting, Albuquerque, NM, June 2002**

*Session 41. Clusters of Galaxies, Large Scale Structure*

Display, Tuesday, June 4, 2002, 10:00am-6:30pm, SW Exhibit Hall
[Previous] |
[Session 41] |
[Next]

## [41.13] Are Massive Photons Needed to Bind the Coma Cluster?

*D. F. Bartlett (University of Colorado at Boulder)*

For believers in dark matter, the answer is clearly no.
Zwicky (1933) postulated dark matter specifically to bind
the Coma cluster with Newtonian gravitational forces. At the
199th Meeting I introduced a sinusoidal potential that
alleviates the need for dark matter, particularly in spiral
galaxies such as the Milky Way. This non-Newtonian potential
satisfies the equation \nabla^{2}\phi+k^{2}\phi=4\pi\rho. The
new potential excels in producing strong tidal forces but is
inadequate to bind a large amorphous collection of galaxies.
Here I make a complementary "non-Coulombic" proposal. The
electrostatic potential satisfies \nabla^{2}\phi
-k^{2}\phi=-4\pi\rho. The putative k's for the two
potentials are identical. They are both k=2\pi/(R_{o}/20)
=0.015 pc^{-1}.

The proposed binding for Coma is not electric but magnetic.
Maxwell's equations can be extended to accomodate a finite
k and consequently a massive photon
m_{\gamma}=(h/2\pi)(k/c) (Goldhaber & Nieto 1971). The
familiar expression for the magnetic energy density gains a
new term: \Delta W/\Delta V =B^{2}/8\pi + k^{2}A^{2}/8\pi
=(B^{2}/8\pi)(1+k^{2}l^{2}). Here A is the vector potential and l
is the scale length for coherent magnetic fields. Maxwell's
stress tensor is modified so that the added term gives a
negative, and hence attractive, pressure (Chibisov 1976).
Felten (1996) suggested that B should be about 10 times
bigger than observed for [conventional] magnetic pressures
to equal thermal. This factor may be provided instead by k
and the length l = 1 kpc as observed by Feretti et al
(1995).

This naive proposal is incompatible with both general
relativity and gauge invariance. A complete quantized field
theory is yet to be developed (Bartlett 2001). In the
meantime the proposal offers astronomers the opportunity to
make a variety of tests. Some will be discussed here.

The author(s) of this abstract have provided an email address
for comments about the abstract:
David.Bartlett@Colorado.edu

[Previous] |
[Session 41] |
[Next]

Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, **34**

© 2002. The American Astronomical Soceity.