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There is a quite predictive and reasonably successful theory for the formation of low-mass stars, but our understanding of the formation of more massive stars is much less developed. We will consider the applicability of theories for the formation of low-mass stars to the formation of stars of higher mass. For intermediate-mass stars, the theory may be applicable, with minor modifications, such as inclusion of non-thermal support. For more massive stars, there are major differences, such as the tendency of high mass stars to form in clusters. The physical conditions in regions forming stars of different mass will be reviewed, with the goal of understanding the relationship between cloud conditions and the type and number of stars that form. Finally, we will review studies of cloud fragmentation and the mass distribution of clumps in order to assess the connection between the clump distribution and the mass distribution of stars.
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