Citations in Text
References should be cited in text by the last name of the author(s) and the date of publication (Hale 1929). There is no comma before the date. For papers with two authors, join author names with an ampersand (Press & Rybicki 1992). Papers by three or more authors are cited by the first author followed by "et al." and the date (Goodman et al. 2003).
All sources cited in the text and tables must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper, and all entries in the reference list must be cited in the text. Reference entries should be ordered alphabetically, starting with the last name of the first author, followed by the first author's initial(s), and so on for each additional author. For papers with more than five authors, the last name and initials of the first three authors only should be listed, followed by a comma and "et al." References listed as "et al." are grouped together and last, as if the fourth author started with "z"; they are not alphabetized by the name of the actual fourth author. Multiple entries for one author or one group of authors should be ordered chronologically, and multiple entries for the same year should be distinguished by appending sequential lower-case letters to the year, even if the author groups are not identical: e.g., Smith, E., Rowe, T., & Jones, A. B. 1999a; Smith, A. B., Thomas, J. R., & Peebles, P. J. E. 1999b; Smith et al. 1999c (because all will appear as "Smith et al. 1999" in the text).
Citation of Electronic Sources
Electronic catalogs, databases, observers' guides, instrument documentation, electronic conference proceedings, electronic journals, and other stable (non-changing) documents available online should be listed in the reference list in the same manner as other references. These should give the author(s) or authoring agency, title of the document, location and name of the hosting organization (e.g., Pasadena, CA: JPL), version consulted if any, page or document number if any, and the URL (see examples below). References in this class include databases, manuals, conference proceedings, and similar documents, but not general informational sites for instruments or projects, sites for downloading computer code, or papers posted on personal web pages. Citations of electronic journals should follow normal journal format, omitting page number if none are used, followed by the URL. See below for examples.
Note that URLs for all other electronic resources, such as personal web pages, general informational sites for organizations, telescopes, surveys, projects, proposals, sites for uploading computer or mathematical code, and other sites whose content regularly changes, should be given in a footnote at first mention in the text, but not listed in the reference list.
References to papers in preparation, preprints, or other sources generally not available to readers should be avoided if possible. If no published form is available, preprints may be listed in the reference list. Private communications, unpublished works, and papers in preparation should be cited only in the run of text, giving authors' initials and the year if completion is imminent, e.g., F. Carlon et al. (2009, in preparation).
Authors will be queried for missing, incomplete, or incorrect information in the reference list. It is especially important that authors recheck reference lists after each revision of the text, to be certain that all references cited in the text are in the reference list, and all references given in the reference list are cited.
Examples are given here of some of the most common citation formats.
Martín, E. L., Rebolo, R., & Zapatero Osorio, M. R. 1996, ApJ, 469, 706
Aguirre, J. E., et al. 2011, ApJS, 192, 4
Donat, W., III, & Boksenberg, A. J. 1993, The Astronomical Almanac for the Year 1994, Vol. 2 (2nd ed.; Washington, DC: GPO)
Where specific pages of a book are cited, these should be given at the text citation, not in the reference list.
Paper or Chapter in an Edited Collection
Huchra, J. P. 1986, in Inner Space/Outer Space, ed. E. W. Kolb et al. (Chicago, IL: Univ. Chicago Press), 65
Salpeter, E. E., & Wasserman, I. M. 1993, in ASP Conf. Ser. 36, Planets around Pulsars, ed. J. A. Phillips, S. E. Thorsett, & S. R. Kulkarni (San Francisco, CA: ASP), 345
Electronic Conference Proceedings (published only online)
Gomez, M. 2000, in Cosmology 2000, ed. M.C. Bento, O. Bertolami, & L. Teodoro (Lisbon: Inst. Superio Tecnico), 57, http://alfa.ist.utl.pt/~bento/cosmo2000/proc/proceedings.html
Hoffleit, D. 1982, The Bright Star Catalogue (New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Obs.)
Electronic Newsletters (published only online)
Gussenhoven, M. S., Mullen, E. G., & Sagalyn, R. C. 1985, CRRES/SPACERAD Instrument Description, Document AFGL-TR-85-0017 (Hanscom, MA: Air Force Geophys. Lab.)
Spitzer Science Center. 2004, Spitzer Observers' Manual (Pasadena, CA: SSC), http://sirtf.caltech.edu/SSC/obs/
Smith, A. B. 1999, arXiv:astro-ph/9812345 (style for preprints before April 2007)
Smith, A. B. 2007, arXiv:0702.1234 (style for preprints after April 2007)
Lockwood, G. W., & Skiff, B. A. 1988, Air Force Geophys. Lab. preprint (AFGL-TR-88-0221)
References to preprints are acceptable only for papers not yet published. For papers that have been accepted but are not yet published, the preprint number may be given at the end of a reference submitted or in press (i.e., Smith, A. B. 1999, AJ, in press (arXiv:astro-ph/9912345)).
Papers Submitted or In Press
Wolk, S. J., & Walter, F. M. 1999, AJ, submitted
Wolk, S. J., & Walter, F. M. 1999, AJ, in press
"Submitted" should be used for manuscripts not yet accepted for publication, and "in press" for manuscripts accepted but not yet published.
Acronyms for some frequently cited journals are given below:
- A&A – Astronomy and Astrophysics
- A&AR – The Astronomy and Astrophysics Review
- A&AS – Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series
- Afz – Astrofizika
- AJ – The Astronomical Journal
- ApJ – The Astrophysical Journal
- ApJL – The Astrophysical Journal Letters
- ApJS – The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
- Ap&SS – Astrophysics and Space Science
- ARA&A – Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics
- AZh – Astronomicheskij Zhurnal
- BAAS – Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society (AAS Meetings)
- JA&A – Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy
- MNRAS – Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
- PASJ – Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan
- PASP – Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
- QJRAS – Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society
- RevMexAA – Revista Mexicana de Astronomia y Astrofisica
- SvA – Soviet Astronomy