Oral, Wednesday, January 7, 2004, 2:00-3:30pm, Centennial IV

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*R. K. Williams (University of Florida)*

In this paper, I present a theoretical and numerical (Monte
Carlo) *N-particle\/* fully relativistic 4-D (spacetime)
analysis of Penrose scattering processes (Compton and
\gamma \gamma \longrightarrow e^{-} e^{+}\/) in the ergosphere
of a supermassive Kerr (rotating) black hole. These general
relativistic model calculations surprisingly reveal that the
observed high energies and luminosities of quasars and other
active galactic nuclei, the collimated jets about the polar
axis, and the asymmetrical jets (which can be enhanced by
relativistic Doppler beaming effects) *all* are inherent
properties of rotating black holes. From this analysis, it
is shown that the Penrose scattered escaping relativistic
particles exhibit tightly wound coil-like cone distributions
(highly collimated vortical jet distributions) about the
polar axis, with helical polar angles of escape varying from
0.5^{o} to 30^{o} for the highest energy particles. It is
also shown that the gravitomagnetic field, which causes the
dragging of inertial frames, exerts a force acting on the
momentum vectors of the incident and scattered particles,
causing the particle emission to be asymmetrical above and
below the equatorial plane, thus appearing to break the
equatorial reflection symmetry of the Kerr metric. This
energy-momentum extraction model can be applied to any size
black hole, irrespective of the mass, and therefore applies
to microquasars as well. Importantly, as relativistic
Penrose produced e^{-}e^{+} pairs escape along vortical polar
trajectories, they can induce a dynamo-like magnetic field
having features similar to that of a solenoid-type field:
**B**\propto I n/c \,**\hat e_z**, where I is the
current generated by the escaping electrons and n is the
number of ``turns'' (i.e., trajectories) about the polar
axis per unit length. This field could further aid in the
collimation, as well as be responsible for the observed
synchrotron radiation and measured polarization. The
consistency of these model calculations with observations
suggests that the external magnetic field of the accretion
disk plays a negligible role in the extraction of
energy-momentum from a rotating black hole, inside the
ergosphere, close to the event horizon, where gravitational
forces, and thus the dynamics of the black hole, appear to
be dominant, as would be expected.

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Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, **35**#5

© 2003. The American Astronomical Soceity.