**34th Meeting of the AAS Division on Dynamical Astronomy, May 2003**

* 9 Standards and Gauges*

Oral, Tuesday, May 6, 2003, 1:00-3:05pm,
[Previous] |
[ 9] |
[Next]

## [9.05] Satellite Orbit Plane Perturbations Using an Efroimsky Gauge Velocity

*V. J. Slabinski (Earth Orientation Dept., USNO)*

Efroimsky(2003) and Newman and Efroimsky(2003) have proposed
a generalization of Lagrange's perturbation equations by
omitting the requirement that the orbital elements be
osculating, that is, that the satellite velocity computed
from the unperturbed elements be the same as the velocity
computed from the perturbed elements. The arbitrary
difference between the two velocities is specified by a
``gauge velocity'' analogous to the gauge in electromagnetic
potentials. This gauge velocity is zero for osculating
elements.

As a simple, illustrative example of how this gauge freedom
can simplify the resulting element expressions, we compute
the J2 gravity perturbations to the plane of a circular
satellite orbit. We find the gauge velocity that keeps the
orbit inclination constant, with no short-period terms. This
gauge velocity then results in a node position that moves
uniformly with time, also with no short-period terms.

King-Hele(1958) obtained similar results by a method that
implicitly used non-osculating elements. We relate our
solution to the first-order osculating element expressions
given by Kozai(1959).

[Previous] |
[ 9] |
[Next]

Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, **35** #4

© 2003. The American Astronomical Soceity.