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G. Chartas, W. N. Brandt (PSU), S. C. Gallagher (MIT), G. P. Garmire (PSU)
We report on the first detections of relativistic outflows with velocities ranging between 0.1c and 0.4c in the Broad Absorption Line (BAL) quasars APM08279+0522 and PG1115+080. These observations were performed with the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observatories over different epochs and indicate significant variability of the energies and widths of the X-ray BALs over time-scales as short as two months. APM08279+0522 and PG1115+080 are unique objects for probing the kinematics of quasar winds. The large flux magnifications provided by the gravitational lens effect combined with the large redshifts of the quasars have facilitated the acquisition of the first high signal-to-noise X-ray spectra of quasars containing X-ray BALs. The observed high bulk velocities of the X-ray BALs combined with the relatively short recombination time-scales of the X-ray absorbing gas and the X-ray BAL variability imply that the absorbers responsible for the X-ray BALs are located within the expected location of the UV BAL region and may therefore represent the shielding gas proposed in several theoretical studies of line-driven disk winds. The confirmation of relativistic quasar outflows in most quasars would imply higher mass flow rates than those based on outflow velocities derived from UV BALs.These outflowing winds may therefore provide a significant contribution to the enrichment of the vicinity of the quasars and their host galaxies with accretion disk material. We will present estimates for the column densities, ionization states, locations and kinematic properties of the X-ray BAL gas.
We acknowledge financial support from NASA grants NAS 8-38252, NAS 8-01128, and NAG5-9949. WNB acknowledges financial support from NASA LTSA grant NAG5-8107 and NASA grant NAG5-9932.
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Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society,
© 2003. The American Astronomical Soceity.