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Y. L. Wang, C. T. Russell, J. Raeder, M. G. Kivelson (Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California Los Angeles)
The spectrum of ion cyclotron waves seen during the Io flybys, I0, I24, I25 and I27 is quite varied. On I0 the cyclotron waves had a single strong peak near the gyrofrequency of SO2+. On I24 there were two peaks, one at the SO+ gyrofrequency and one at the SO2+ gyrofrequency, with the former stronger. On I25, the spectrum was similar but the relative strength of the peaks reversed. On I27 the spectrum was similar to I24 with the addition of a broad band centered on the H2S+ gyrofrequency. These varying strength emissions centered at the gyrofrequency of discrete ion gyrofrequencies imply that the chemical composition of the upper atmosphere is quite variable. The strength of the waves also appears to vary from one pass to the next, with the weakest signals occurring furthest from noon solar phase angle. This latter effect may be a geometrical in origin, associated with the varying dayside atmosphere relative to the corotating plasma. A simple model of the ion pickup process and transport of fast neutrals across field lines can explain the observed local time effect, and some of the radial variation of the torus properties.