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C. T. Russell, D. E. Huddleston, F. Konstantinidis, M. G. Kivelson, K. K. Khurana (UCLA)
Io produces up to a ton of ions per second that in steady state must be lost from the magnetosphere. We can calculate the average radial transport rate for this plasma from the observed torus density, the displaced Europa wake observations and the magnetic structure of the magnetodisk. This transport cannot be steady for the magnetodisk structure varies from pass to pass. This variation may be associated with the appearance of auroral storms as the corresponding magnetic foot points in the ionosphere. Beyond 50 RJ and just past midnight explosive reconnection is seen that separates the magnetic flux from the iogenic ions. This magnetic flux then must return to the inner magnetosphere to replenish the field transported outward with the plasma. Much closer to Jupiter observations reveal relatively small, empty flux tubes in the middle magnetosphere and the Io torus. These flux tubes appear to be the returning magnetic flux. If so, they must be moving inward at a velocity much greater than that of the heavily laden flux tubes moving outward.