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2  AASTeX Article Markup
        2.1  Preamble
        2.1.1  Getting Started
        2.1.2  Defining New Commands
        2.1.3  Editorial Information
        2.1.4  Short Comment on Title Page
        2.1.5  Running Heads
    2.2  Starting the Main Body
    2.3  Title and Author Information
    2.4  Abstract
    2.5  Keywords
    2.6  Comments to Editors
    2.7  Sections
    2.8  Figure and Table Placement
    2.9  Acknowledgments
    2.10  Facilities
    2.11  Appendices
    2.12  Equations
    2.13  Citations and Bibliography
        2.13.1  The thebibliography Environment
        2.13.2  Specifying Bibliographic and Citation Information
        2.13.3  The references Environment
        2.13.4  Abbreviations for Journal Names
    2.14  Figures
        2.14.1  Electronic Art
        2.14.2  Figure Captions
    2.15  Tables
        2.15.1  The deluxetable Environment
        2.15.2  Preamble to the deluxetable
        2.15.3  Content of the deluxetable
        2.15.4  The table Environment
        2.15.5  Table End Notes
    2.16  Supplemental Materials
        2.16.1  Machine-readable Tables
        2.16.2  Online Color Figures
        2.16.3  Online-only Figures
        2.16.4  Animations
    2.17  Miscellaneous
        2.17.1  Celestial Objects and Data Sets
        2.17.2  Ionic Species and Chemical Bonds
        2.17.3  Fractions
        2.17.4  Astronomical Symbols
        2.17.5  Hypertext Constructs
    2.18  Concluding the File
3  Style Options
    3.1  Manuscript Style
    3.2  Preprints
        3.2.1  Single-column Preprint
        3.2.2  Two-column Preprint
    3.3  The eqsecnum Style
    3.4  The flushrt Style
4  Additional Documentation
5  Acknowledgments

1 Introduction

The American Astronomical Society (AAS) has developed a markup package to assist authors in preparing manuscripts intended for submission to AAS-affiliated journals, as well as to other journals that will accept AASTeX manuscripts.

The most important aspect of the AASTeX
package is that it defines the set of commands, or markup,
that can be used to identify the structural elements of papers.
When articles are marked up using this set of standard commands,
they may then be submitted electronically to the editorial
offices and fed into the electronic production of the journals.

This guide contains basic instructions for creating
manuscripts using the AASTeX markup package.
Authors are expected to be familiar with the editorial
requirements of the journals so that they can make
appropriate submissions; they should also have a basic
knowledge of LaTeX-for instance, knowing
how to set up equations using LaTeX commands.
A number of useful publications about LaTeX (and TeX) are listed in
the reference section of this guide.

Authors who wish to submit papers electronically to the ApJ, AJ, or PASP are strongly encouraged use the AASTeX markup package as described in this guide.

2  AASTeX Article Markup

This section describes the commands in the AASTeX
package that an author might enter in a manuscript that is being
prepared for electronic submission to one of the journals.
The commands will be described in roughly the same order as they
would appear in a manuscript.
The reader will also find it helpful to examine the
sample files that are distributed with the package and to consult the
information available on the AASTeX Web site located at
Authors are also reminded to review the instructions to authors and electronic
submissions guidelines for the specific journals to which they submit
their papers.

2.1  Preamble

In LaTeX manuscripts, the preamble is that portion of the file before
the \begin{document} command.

2.1.1  Getting Started

The first piece of markup in the manuscript declares the
overall style of the document. Any commands that appear before this
markup will be ignored.



This specifies the document class as aastex with the
default style (manuscript).
The paper copy produced by this style file will be double spaced.
Any tables included in the main body of the manuscript will also be
double spaced.

Other substyles are available. They are discussed in § 3.

2.1.2  Defining New Commands

AASTeX allows authors to define their own commands with
LaTeX's \newcommand.
(Authors should not use the plain TeX \def command in
AAS journal submissions.)
Authors' \newcommand definitions must be placed in the
document preamble.

In general, author-defined commands that are
abbreviations or shorthands are acceptable and can be easily handled
by journal offices and publishers during data conversion;
for example:

\newcommand{\grb}{gamma ray burst}

However, abbreviations that attempt to define new symbols by using
LaTeX commands for repositioning text tend to
cause problems in the publication process and should be avoided.
In particular, author-defined commands that use any of the commands
listed below are apt to cause problems during data conversion.

\hskip, \vskip,
\raise, \raisebox,
\lower, \rlap,
\kern, \lineskip,
\char, \mathchar,
\mathcode, \buildref,
\mathrel, \baselineskip

Consequently, authors are strongly discouraged from
using them.

Extra symbols are defined for AASTeX,
some specifically for an astronomical context, others more
broadly used in math and physics.
In particular, the AMS has additional symbol fonts that are
available in a standard LaTeX package (amssymb).
All of these symbols are depicted in the additional symbosl tables
supplied with the package and on the AASTeX Web site.

Before defining a new symbol command,
authors are advised to consult these tables to see whether the
symbol they need already exists. If it does, they should use the
corresponding markup command.
Authors should not redefine existing command names.
When one of these commands is encountered in an electronic
manuscript submitted to a journal, an author's redefinition will
be ignored and the originally-defined command used.

2.1.3  Editorial Information

A number of markup commands are available for
editorial office use in recording the publication history
for each manuscript.
These commands should be used by
the editorial and production offices only.

\received{receipt date}
\revised{revision date}
\accepted{acceptance date}


Copyright information should be specified with the commands \cpright and \ccc. The type of copyright and the corresponding year are given in \cpright. Valid copyright types are as follows.

AAS     Copyright assigned to the AAS
ASP     Copyright assigned to the ASP
Crown     Crown copyright applies
none     No copyright can be claimed

The copyright type is case sensitive, so the type string must be
entered exactly as given above.

The Copyright Clearing Center code may be given in the \ccc
command. The code is taken as regular text, so any special characters,
notably "$," must be escaped as appropriate.

2.1.4  Short Comment on Title Page

Authors who wish to include a short remark on the title page,
such as the name and date of the journal to which an article
has been submitted, may do so with the following command.


In the
manuscript style,
these comments appear on the title page after the title and authors;
in the
preprint style,
they are placed at the upper right corner
of the title page.

2.1.5  Running Heads

Authors are invited to supply running head information using the
following commands.


Two different kinds of data are generally supplied in running heads.
The left head contains an author list, (last
names, possibly truncated as "et al."), while the right head
is an abbreviated form of the paper title. This running head
information will not appear on the LaTeX-printed page but will be
passed through to copy editing staff
for inclusion in the published version.

Editors and publishers impose varying requirements
on the brevity of these data. A good rule of thumb is to limit the list
of authors to three or else use "et al.," and to limit the
short form of the title to 40-45 characters.
The editors may choose to modify the author-supplied
running heads.

2.2  Starting the Main Body

The preamble is a control section.
None of the markup that appears in the preamble
actually typesets anything. The author must include a


command to identify the beginning of the main, typeset
portion of the manuscript.

2.3  Title and Author Information

Authors should use the
and \author commands to specify title
and author information and the \affil command
to indicate the author's primary affiliation.
Each \author
should be followed by a corresponding \affil
and optional \email command.

\email{e-mail address}

Line breaks may be inserted in the title
with the \\ command. (Long titles will
be broken automatically, so the \\ markup is not required.)
If the title is explicitly broken over several lines, the
preferred style for titles in AAS and ASP journals is the so-called
"inverted pyramid" style. In this style, the longest line
is the first (or top) line, and each succeeding line is shorter.
The text of the title should be entered in mixed case;
it will be printed in upper case or mixed case according to
the style of the publication.
Footnotes are permissible in titles. Be careful to ensure that
alternate affiliations (see below) are properly numbered if a
footnote to the title is specified.

Authors' names should be entered in mixed case.
Names that appear together in the author list for authors who
have the same primary affiliation should be specified in a single
\author command.
Each author group should be followed by
an \affil command giving the principle
affiliation of those authors. Physical and postal address information
for the specified institution may be included with \affil.
The address can be broken over several lines using the
\\ command to indicate
the line breaks.
Usually, however, postal information will fit on one line.
When there is more than one \author command, the final
one should be preceded by the \and command.

Authors often have affiliations in addition to their principle employer.
These alternate affiliations may be specified with the \altaffilmark
and \altaffiltext
These behave like the \footnotemark
and footnotetext commands of LaTeX except that they do not take
optional arguments. \altaffilmark
is appended to authors' names in the \author
list and generates superscript identification numbers.
The text for the individual alternate affiliations is generated by the

\altaffilmark{key number(s)}
\altaffiltext{numerical key}{text}

It is up to the author to make sure that
each key number in his or her \altaffilmark
matches the numerical key for
the corresponding \altaffiltext.

When there is a lengthy author list, all author names may be
specified in a single \author
command with affiliations
specified using the \altaffilmark mechanism.
In these cases, no \affil
commands are used, and in print, the
affiliations would all be listed in a footnote block at the bottom
of the title page.

2.4  Abstract

A paper's abstract should be marked with the
abstract environment.

abstract text

If an author is using the preprint2 style, and the abstract is too long to fit on the title page, the longabstract option may be used in the documentclass to break the abstract to a new page.


Note that authors should use the longabstract option only in preprint2 mode and only when the abstract is too long to fit on the title page.

2.5  Keywords

Keywords, or subject headings, are accommodated
as a single piece of text.


If authors supply keywords, they must be delimited by whatever
punctuation is required by the journal.
They should be specified in alphabetical order.
The \keywords
command will print the proper leading text-"Keywords:," "Subject headings:," etc.-according to journal style.

2.6  Comments to Editors

Authors may make notes or comments to the copy editor with the
\notetoeditor command.


This command behaves like a
footnote. Output to the printed page is produced only in the
manuscript style.

2.7  Sections

AASTeX supports four levels of section headings.


Section headings should be given in upper case or mixed case, depending
on the style of the journal.
Note that these commands delimit sections by marking the
beginning of each section;
there are no separate commands to mark the ends.

2.8  Figure and Table Placement

When preparing a manuscript for submission to an AAS journal, figures and tables do not generally need to be "placed" in the text of the
document where an author would like them to appear but
rather may simply follow the main body of the text.
However, authors may indicate to the editors the preferred placement of
these items by use of the \place* commands.


The \place*{key} commands are similar to the
command in LaTeX
and require corresponding \label
commands to link them to the
proper elements.

When used in the
manuscript style, the \place* commands will print a short
message to the editor about figure or table placement.
In the other styles, nothing is printed.

2.9  Acknowledgments

AASTeX supports an
\acknowledgments name="acknowledgments29"> section.

 acknowledgments text

In the AASTeX styles, acknowledgments are set off from the
conclusion of the body with vertical space. Note the acknowledgments
command takes no arguments.

2.10  Facilities

To help organizations obtain information on the effectiveness of their
telescopes, the AAS has created a group of keywords for telescope
facilities. Using a common set of keywords will make searches for
this information significantly easier and more accurate.
In addition, the use of facility
keywords will be useful for linking papers that utilize the
same telescopes together within the framework of the Virtual Observatory.
A facilities keyword list is available through a
link at the AASTeX Web page,

The facilities list should appear after the
acknowledgments section.

Facilities: \facility{facility ID},
   \facility{facility ID},
   \facility{facility ID}, ...

As part of the facility ID argument,
the author may also include
the name of the instrument in parentheses, e.g.
facility{HST(WFPC2)} or facility{MMT(Blue channel spectrograph)}.
There is no limit to the number of facility keywords
that may be included in a paper.

2.11  Appendices

When one or more appendices are needed in a paper, the point where the
main body text ends and the appendix begins should be marked
with the \appendix

\section{body section}
\section{appendix section}

The \appendix
command takes care of a number of internal
housekeeping concerns, such as identifying sections with letters
instead of numerals, and resetting the equation counter.
Note that the \appendix
command takes no arguments.
Sections in the appendix should be headed with \section

2.12  Equations

Display equations can be typeset in LaTeX in a number of ways.
The following three are probably of greatest use in AASTeX.




displaymath environment
will break out a single,
unnumbered formula. The equation environment does the same
thing except that the equation is
autonumbered by LaTeX.
To set several formulæ in which vertical alignment
is required, or to display a long equation across multiple lines, use the
eqnarray environment. Each line of the eqnarray
will be numbered
unless a \nonumber
command is inserted
before the equation line delimiter
LaTeX's equation counter is not incremented when
is used.

Authors may occasionally wish to group related equations together and
identify them with letters appended to the equation number.
When this is desired, such related equations should still be set
in equation or eqnarray environments, whichever is
appropriate, and then grouped within
the mathletters environment.

equation or eqnarray

It is possible to override LaTeX's automatic numbering within the
equation or eqnarray environments using


When \eqnum
is specified inside an equation environment
or on a particular equation within an eqnarray, the text
supplied as an argument to \eqnum
is used as the equation
LaTeX's equation counter is not incremented when \eqnum
is used.
must be used inside the math environment.

If, as a consequence of the use of \eqnum
or \nonumber,
LaTeX's equation counter gets out of synch with the author's
intended sequence,
the counter may be reset to a particular value.


The equation counter should be set to the number corresponding to the
last equation that was formatted; therefore, it is most appropriate for this
command to appear immediately after an equation or
eqnarray environment.
The command must be used
outside the math environments.

The eqsecnum style file can also be used to modify the way equations
are numbered. See § 3 for details.

2.13  Citations and Bibliography

Two options are available for marking citations
and formatting reference lists: the standard LaTeX thebibliography
environment, and the AASTeX references environment.
Authors are strongly encouraged to use thebibliography
in their electronic submissions.

Please note that the bibliographic data supplied by the author in
the reference list must conform to the standards of the journal.
Many of the journals that
accept AASTeX agreed to reduce typographic overhead, bold, italic, etc.,
in reference lists [Abt, 1990], and the AAS
has elected not to burden authors with tedious markup commands
to delimit the bibliographic fields. Instead, citations will be
typeset in roman with no size or style changes.
It is the responsibility of the author to
arrange the required bibliographic fields in the
proper order with the correct punctuation, according to journal

2.13.1  The thebibliography Environment

The preferred method for reference management is to use LaTeX's
thebibliography environment, marking citations in the body
of the paper with
\citep or \citet
and associating references with them using \bibitem.
The \cite-\bibitem
mechanism associates citations and references symbolically
while maintaining proper citation syntax within the paper.
In the \bibitem
command, the author should specify citation data inside
square brackets and a citation key in curly braces
for each reference. (The bibitem command is described
in detail in the next section.)

   \bibitem[cite data]{keybibliographic data

Note that the argument dummy to the start command of the
environment is not
used in the AASTeX package, but it is included to be consistent with the
syntax of standard LaTeX. It is acceptable to simply insert an
empty pair of curly braces at the end of the \begin{thebibliography}

2.13.2  Specifying Bibliographic and Citation Information

AASTeX uses the natbib package [Daly, 1998] for
citation management.
The natbib package re-implements LaTeX's cite command,
offering greater flexibility for managing citations in the
author-year form.

When using natbib, bibliographic data are defined
in bibitem commands.

         bibliographic data

The square-bracketed argument of the bibitem
contains the author portion of the citation
followed by the year set off in parentheses.
The parentheses are important-natbib uses them to
determine the year portion of the citation-so be sure to
include them.
The argument key in curly braces is the code name
by which the citation is referenced in the text.

When placing citations in the text, the author should use
either a citep or a citet command.


The citep command produces a citation that is entirely
set off by parentheses, e.g. "(Cox 1995)," while citet permits
the author's name to form part of the text, e.g. "Cox (1995)."
The plain LaTeX cite command behaves like citet.

The citation key must correspond to the key in a bibitem command.
During processing, information from the square-bracketed argument of the
key's bibitem is inserted in
the text at the location of the \cite command.
Multiple citation keys are separated by commas, e.g.,

citep and citet each take optional arguments that specify
extra text to be appended to the citation label. Text in the first
set of square brackets will appear before the cite while
text in the second set will appear after it.
For instance, citep[chap. 2]{jon90}
would produce the citation "(Jones et al., 1990, chap. 2),"
citep[see][]{jon90} would produce "(see Jones et al, 1990)," and
citep[see][chap. 2]jon90} would print
"(see Jones et al., 1990, chap. 2)."
In addition, the * form of the
cite commands will print the full author list instead of the
abbreviated form.

The syntax discussed above should be sufficient for the
vast majority of cases; however, AASTeX
does use the full natbib implementation, so many more
syntax options are available. For details on
the full range of natbib citation options, see the section
on using natbib on the AASTeX Web
site and the natbib package documentation.

It is not possible to use \bibitem
within AASTeX's references environment
(§ 2.13.3),
nor will \cite commands work properly in the main body
if \bibitem commands are absent.

2.13.3  The references Environment

Some authors might prefer to enter citations directly
into the body of an article. If so, the references environment may be
used to format the reference list. The
references environment
simply sets off
the list of references and adjusts spacing parameters.

\reference{keybibliographic data

While the
references environment
remains supported in AASTeX,
we anticipate that authors will prefer the stronger capabilities of
the standard LaTeX thebibliography commands as extended by natbib.

2.13.4  Abbreviations for Journal Names

AASTeX commands for journal abbreviations have been deprecated.
Authors are encouraged to use standard journal abbreviations defined
by the ADS group; see

2.14  Figures

2.14.1  Electronic Art

If an author wishes
to embed graphics in a manuscript, it is necessary that
the graphics files conform
to the Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) standard [Adobe, 1999]. The
author must also have an appropriate DVI translator,
one that targets PostScript output devices. (Detailed information
on preparing and submitting electronic art is
available in the submissions instructions for the journals.)

Several commands are available for including EPS files
in AASTeX manuscripts. They should be placed within the
figure environment.


When \figurenum is specified inside the figure environment,
the text supplied as an argument to \figurenum will be used as the
figure identifier.
LaTeX's figure counter is not incremented when \figurenum
is used.
\figurenum must be used inside the figure environment.

\plotone inserts the graphic in the named EPS file,
scaled so that the horizontal
dimension fits the width of the body text;
the vertical dimension is scaled to maintain the aspect ratio.
\plottwo inserts two plots next to each other.
Scale factors are determined automatically from information in the
EPS file.

The automatic scaling may be overridden with the command
\epsscale{num}, where num is a scaling factor
in decimal units, e.g., 0.80.

The plotone and plottwo
macros are invocations of the graphicx
includegraphics command. In most instances, using
plotone or plottwo should work for placing
figures in AASTeX documents. However, if more
flexibility is needed, the includegraphics command
may be invoked directly. For instance, to rotate
an image by 90 degrees, use


See the graphicx package documentation or the AASTeX Web site for a
complete list of the available arguments to includegraphics.

Authors are strongly encouraged to use plotone, plottwo, or includegraphics to place their EPS figures. However, as of the current release, the old plotfiddle macro from v4.0 has been reintroduced and may be used if the desired figure placement cannot be achieved with one of the methods above. The syntax of the command is


where the arguments are

epsfile     name of the EPS file
vsize     vertical white space to allow for plot (LaTeX dimension)
rot     rotation angle (degrees)
hsf     horizontal width of scaled figure (PS points)
vsf     vertical height of scaled figure (PS points)
htrans     horizontal translation (PS points)
vtrans     vertical translation (PS points)

PostScript points are 1/72 inches, so an htrans of 72 moves
the graphic 1 inch to the right. Note that the vtrans argument is
discarded in the reimplented macro and is included only for
backward compatibility with AASTeX v4.0.

2.14.2  Figure Captions

Regardless of whether an author includes electronic art in a manuscript, figure captions, or legends, should be provided. If art is included in the document, use the \caption command within the figure environment. If electronic art is not included, figure captions may be grouped together at the end of the document using \figcaption.


The optional argument, filename, can be used to identify
the file for the corresponding figure;
text refers to the caption for that figure. The author
may provide a \label with a unique key for cross-referencing

When the \figcaption command is used, the figure
identification label,
e.g., "Figure 1," is generated automatically by the command itself, so
there is no need to key this information.
There is an upper limit of seven figure captions per page.
Footnotes are not supported for figures.

2.15  Tables

There is support in the AASTeX package for tables via two mechanisms:
LaTeX's standard table environment,
and the
deluxetable environment, which allows for the formatting
of lengthy tabular material. Tables may be
marked up using either mechanism, although use of
deluxetable is preferred.
Authors should not use the LaTeX
tabbing environment when preparing electronic

2.15.1  The deluxetable Environment

Authors are encouraged to use the
deluxetable environment to format their tables since it automatically
handles many formatting tasks, including table numbering and insertion
of horizontal rules. It also provides mechanisms for breaking tables and
controlling width and vertical spacing that are unavailable in the LaTeX
tabular environment.

The deluxetable environment
is delimited by LaTeX's familiar
\begin and \end constructs.
The content consists of preamble commands and table data,
the latter delimited by \startdata
and \enddata.

preamble commands
table data

The argument cols specifies the justification for each column.
An alignment token, "l," "c," or "r," is given for each column,
indicating flush left, centered, or flush right.

2.15.2  Preamble to the deluxetable

There are several commands in the
deluxetable environment
must be given in the preamble.

\tabletypesize{font size command}

If a table is too wide for the printed page, the font size of the table
can be cahnged with the \tabletypesize command, which takes as
an argument one of the the font size change commands:
(11pt), \footnotesize
(10pt), or

To force a table to be set in landscape orientation,
use the \rotate 
command. Note that
most DVI previewers will not properly render rotated deluxetable
output, so in order to see what the table looks like,
it must be output to PostScript and viewed there.

The width of a deluxetable is defined by \tablewidth.
If this command is omitted, the default width is the width of the page.
The table can be set to its natural width by specifying
a dimension of 0pt.
Long tables may have a natural width that is
different for each page. The natural width for each page will be
printed to the log file during processing.
Authors may then use this log information to
define a fixed table width in order to give the
table a more uniform appearance across pages.

It is possible to override LaTeX's automatic numbering within the
deluxetable environment.
When \tablenum
is specified inside a deluxetable
the text supplied as an argument to \tablenum
will be used as the
table identifier.
LaTeX's equation counter is not incremented when
is used.

The caption (actually, the title) of the table is specified
in \tablecaption.
The text of \tablecaption
should be brief;
explanatory notes should be specified in the end notes to the table
(see § 2.15.5
below). If the caption
does not appear
centered above the table after processing, then specify the width of
the table explicitly with the \tablewidth
command and rerun
LaTeX on the file. If an author supplies a \label for cross-referencing purposes, this, too, should be included in the \tablecaption.

Column headings are specified with \tablehead.
Within the \tablehead, each column heading should be given
in a \colhead, which will ensure that the heading
is centered
on the natural width of the column.
There should be a heading for each column so that there are as
many \colhead
commands in the \tablehead
as there
are data columns.

\colhead{heading} & \colhead{heading}}

If more complicated column headings are required,
any valid tabular command that constitutes a proper
head line in a LaTeX table may be used. For example, the
multicolumn command below would create a table head with
text centered over five columns.


Consult Lamport [1994] or Kopka and Daly [1999] for further details
on the available table commands.

The \tablecolumns{num} command
is necessary if an author has
multi-line column headings produced by \tablehead
or other LaTeX
commands and is using either the \cutinhead
or \sidehead
markup (see below). The num argument should be
set to the true number of columns in the
table. The command must come before the \startdata

2.15.3  Content of the deluxetable

After the table title and column headings have been specified,
data rows can be entered.
Data rows are delimited with the \startdata
and \enddata commands.
The end of each row is indicated with the standard LaTeX \\ command.
Data cells within a row are separated with & (ampersand) characters.

data line\cell&cell&cell\more data lines\\enddata

Column alignment within the data columns can be adjusted with the TeX
\phantom{string} command,
where string can be any character, e.g., \phantom{$\arcmin$}.
A blank character of width string is then inserted in the table.
Four commands have been predefined for this purpose.

\phn     phantom numeral 0-9
\phd     phantom decimal point
\phs     phantom ?
> sign
\phm{string}     generic phantom

Extra vertical space can be inserted between rows with an optional argument to the
\\ command.


The argument is a dimension
and may be specified in any units that are legitimate in LaTeX.

In a table, it may happen that several rows of data are
associated with a single object or item.
Such logical groupings should not be broken across pages.
In these cases, the tablebreak command may be used to force
a page break at the desired point.

table row\\tablebreak
next table row\

This command can be used any time that the default deluxetable page
breaks need to be overridden.

Journals often require that table cells that contain no data
be explicitly marked. This is to differentiate such cells from
blank cells, which are frequently interpreted as implicitly
repeating the entry in the corresponding cell in the row preceding.
Table cells for which there are no data should contain
a \nodata


Within the deluxetable body, two kinds of special heads are
allowed, cutinhead and sidehead.
A cut-in head is a piece of text centered across the width
of the table. It is spaced above and below
from the data rows that precede and
follow it and will appear set off by rules in the LaTeX output.
Similarly, the command for a side head produces a row spanning
the width of the table but with the text left justified.


Table footnotes (more properly, table end notes)
may also be used in the deluxetable environment.
Their use is described in detail in § 2.15.5.

2.15.4  The table Environment

Authors may also compose tables using the table environment.


The table environment
encloses not only the tabular
material but also any title or footnote information
associated with the table.

Titles, or captions, for tables are indicated with a caption


A table label, e.g. "Table 2," is generated automatically
by \caption.
The author
may provide a \label in the caption with a unique key
for cross-referencing

The table body should appear within the tabular environment.


The alignment tokens in cols specify the justification for each column. The letters "l," "c," or "r" is given for each column,
indicating left, center, or right justification.
Consult Lamport [1994] for details about using
tabular environment
to prepare tables.

Each tabular table must appear within a table
environment. There should be only one tabular table per
If the journal requests manuscripts with only one table per page,
the author may need to insert a \clearpage
command after especially short tables.

Use the tableline command to insert horizontal rules in the
tabular environment.


The use of vertical rules should be avoided.

As with the deluxetable environment, it
is possible to override LaTeX's automatic numbering within the
table environment using \tablenum.
must be used inside the table

2.15.5  Table End Notes

AASTeX supports footnotes and end notes within tables;
this support applies to both the
deluxetable environment
and the standard LaTeX table environment.

Footnotes for tables are usually identified by lowercase letters
rather than numbers. Use the tablenotemark and tablenotetext
commands to supply table footnotes.
As with \altaffilmark and \altaffiltext, a note label,
usually a letter, is required.

\tablenotemark{key letter(s)}
\tablenotetext{alpha key}{text}

The key letter of the tablenotemark should be the same as the
alpha key for the corresponding text.
It is the responsibility of the author to make the correspondence

Sometimes authors tabulate materials that have corresponding
references and may want to associate these references with the table.
Authors may also wish to append a short paragraph of explanatory
notes that pertain to the entire table. These elements should be
specified with the commands below.

\tablerefs{reference list}

The \tablenotetext, \tablecomments, and
\tablerefs commands must
be specified after the
\end{tabular} or \enddata and before
the closing \end{table} or \end{deluxetable}.

2.16  Supplemental Materials

For many years now, authors have been taking advantage of the AAS journals'
ability to post supplemental materials with their papers in the electronic
editions. Even though each paper must stand on its own
scientifically without the supplements, these materials are reviewed in the
peer review process and should be included in initial manuscript
submissions. As with regular figures and tables, papers with online only
data must reference each electronic object in the main text
and include an explanation of what the reader will
find in the electronic edition.

The four most popular types of supplemental materials are
machine-readable tables, online color figures, online-only figures, and
animations. Please see each journal's Web site for details on
what types of supplemental materials are acceptable, how to
submit these materials, author tools for preparing them,
and their associated costs.

2.16.1  Machine-readable Tables

Online-only tables submitted to AAS journals are converted
to a machine-readable
format for presentation in the electronic edition.
Machine-readable tables have two
parts: the formatted ASCII data and a metadata header that provides
format, units, and short explanations of each column of data. This
structure is designed to provide maximum flexibility and ease of use
for readers who wish to further manipulate the data with their own
computer programs or with software like Excel.

For each machine-readable table, the author should include a short sample
version of the table in his or her LaTeX submission. This sample version
will appear in the print edition as well as
in HTML in the electronic edition. The sample table should be
5 to 15 lines long. It should include a table note at the end
with text indicating that a machine-readable
version will be available in the electronic edition. For instance,

\tablecomments{Table 1 is
published in its entirety in
the electronic edition of
the Astrophysical Journal.
A portion is shown here
for guidance regarding its
form and content.}

Each example table must
be cited and numbered as if it were a fully printed table.

2.16.2  Online Color Figures

For some journals, authors may submit figures
that will appear in black and white in the
print edition of a journal but in color in the electronic edition.
In these cases, authors must submit separate black and white and RGB color
versions of each figure labelled according to the
file-naming conventions required for the publication.
For the benefit of print journal readers, figure captions should be written
with the color information placed inside parentheses,
for instance, "The dotted
line (colored blue in electronic edition)
is the Ho = 75 km s-1 Mpc-1 model," and should
include a note directing the reader to
"See the electronic edition of the Journal
for a color version of this figure."

2.16.3  Online-only Figures

This feature is mainly useful for articles that contain large compendia
of identification charts and other supplemental graphic material that need not
be printed in full in the paper journal. Online-only figures are intended to
provide supplemental information that is not critical to the scientific
content of the article but that might nonetheless be of interest to the reader.

Online-only figures must be mentioned explicitly by number and appear
in correct numerical order in the body of the text. At least one figure
in a series must be displayed as an example figure for the print edition.
The caption should carry a message indicating that
more figures are available in the electronic edition-for instance,
"Plots for all sources are available in the electronic edition of the journal."
Enough information must be included in the figure caption for readers of the
print edition to determine what is contained in the online-only figures.

2.16.4  Animations

Currently, only animations in the MPEG format are accepted by the AAS journals.
Authors must supply a still frame from the animation in EPS format marked
up like a regular figure that will serve as an example for the reader.
They should include text in the caption for the
still frame indicating that an animation is
available electronically. For instance,
"This figure is also available as an mpeg
animation in the electronic edition of the Astrophysical Journal."
As with online-only figures, authors must include enough information in the
figure caption for readers of the print edition to determine what the
animation illustrates.

2.17  Miscellaneous

2.17.1  Celestial Objects and Data Sets

Authors who wish to have the most important objects in their paper
linked to a data center in the electronic edition may do so using the

\objectname[catalog ID]{text}

macro, or its alias object.
The text contained in the required argument
will be printed in the paper and will serve as a link anchor
in the electronic edition. The catalog ID
given as an optional argument will be carried through as the identification
key in the link to a data center. Note that links will only
be activated if the name provided in the argument is recognized by a
participating data center. It is the author's responsibility to use the
correct identifier.

Similar markup is available for linking to data sets hosted
at participating data centers.

\dataset[catalog ID]{text}

In the paper, the text in the required argument will be
printed while the the catalog ID value will be passed through to form
links to data centers.

When an article contains object or dataset commands, the
publisher will be able to use the markup to
pass along a list of objects and data sets used in the
paper to database personnel. Software can then be used to construct links to
those databases.
Please check with each journal's Web site for instructions on how to
determine the object and data set identifiers, the location of
verifications tools, and information on where in the paper these
macros can best be used.

2.17.2  Ionic Species and Chemical Bonds

When discussing atomic species, ionization levels can be indicated
with the following command.


The ionization state is specified as the second argument
and should be given as a numeral.
For example, "Ca  III" would be marked up as \ion{Ca}{3}.

For single, double, and triple chemical bonds, use the following macros.


2.17.3  Fractions

AASTeX contains commands that permit authors to specify alternate
forms for fractions.
LaTeX will set fractions in displayed math as built-up fractions;
however, it is sometimes desirable to use case fractions in
displayed equations.
In such instances, one should use \case
rather than \frac. Note, however, that authors submitting
manuscripts electronically to AAS journals
should generally find it unnecessary to use any markup other than the
standard LaTeX \frac.

Built-up \frac{1}{2} [1/2]
Case \case{1}{2} \case12
Shilled 1/2 1/2

2.17.4  Astronomical Symbols

As mentioned earlier, the AASTeX package
contains a collection of assorted macros
for symbols and abbreviations specific to an astronomical context.
These are commonly useful and also somewhat difficult for authors
to produce themselves because fussy kerning is required.
See the symbols pages provided with the package distribution.
Most of these commands can be used in both running text and math. However,
\lesssim and \gtrsim can only be used in math mode.

2.17.5  Hypertext Constructs

The \anchor 
command is a general-purpose
hypertext link tag, associating text in the manuscript with
the specified resource (href).


href should be specified as a full URI, including the
scheme: designator (http:, ftp:, etc.).

The \url command supports the special case where an author
wishes to express a URL in the text.


The \email command is used to identify e-mail addresses
anywhere in the manuscript.
The text of the argument is the e-mail address.
Please do not prepend the mailto: part.


This command should be used to indicate authors' e-mail addresses
in author lists at the beginning of manuscripts.

2.18  Concluding the File

The last command in the electronic manuscript file should be the


command, which must appear after all the material in the paper.
This command directs the formatter to finish processing the manuscript.

3  Style Options

3.1  Manuscript Style

The default style option is the manuscript style. This style will
produce double-spaced pages printed in a single column at the width
of the page.

3.2  Preprints

Two preprint styles are available.
The preprint style is similar to the manuscript style,
but it is single-spaced and fully justified.
The preprint2 style produces a two-column preprint.

3.2.1  Single-column Preprint

A single-column preprint format may be specified with the
preprint style option.


The size of the typeface used is under author control by way of
LaTeX's nnpt class options
(where nn is 10, 11, or 12).
Use of 10 point type is not recommended with the
preprint style.

3.2.2  Two-column Preprint

preprint2 style
has the principle function of providing two-column formatting.


It is important to remember
that text lines are considerably shorter when two columns are typeset
side by side on a page. Long equations, wide tables and figures, and
the like, may not typeset in this format without some adjustments.
The expenditure of great effort to adapt copy and markup for
two-column pages is counterproductive.
Remember that the main
goal of this package is to produce draft-, or referee-, format pages.
It is the responsibility of the editors and publishers to
produce publication-format papers for the journals.

The preprint2 style
sets the article's front matter-the title, author, abstract,
and keyword material-on a separate page at full text width.
The body of the article is set in a two-column page grid,
the appendices in a one-column page grid,
and the bibliography in a two-column page grid.
(This manual was prepared using the preprint2 style.)

The author may supply LaTeX's \twocolumn or onecolumn
commands whenever desired.
Be aware, however, that using explicit column-switching commands can
cause formatting problems.

3.3  The eqsecnum Style

The eqsecnum style file can be used to modify the way equations
are numbered.


Normally, equations are numbered sequentially through the
entire paper, starting over at "(A1)" if there is an appendix.
If eqsecnum appears in the documentclass command,
equation numbers will be sequential through each section and will be
formatted "(sec-eqn)," where "sec" is the current section number and
"eqn" is the number of the equation within that section.

3.4  The flushrt Style

A flushrt style option is available for authors that prefer to
have their margins left and right justified.


Note the preprint and preprint2 styles
are already flush right by default.

4  Additional Documentation

The preceding explanation of the markup commands in the
AASTeX package has merit for defining syntax, but many
authors will prefer to examine the sample papers that are
included with the style files.
The files of interest are described below.

A comprehensive example employing nearly all of the capabilities
of the package (in terms of markup as well as formatting)
is in sample.tex.
This file is annotated with comments that describe
the purpose of most of the markup.
sample.tex includes three tables: two marked up using the
deluxetable environment
and another table using the LaTeX table

In table.tex, a complex but short example of the
deluxetable environment
demonstrates some of the techniques
that can be used to generate complex column headings and to align
variable-width columns.
Here the LaTeX \multicolumn command is used to span a heading
over several columns. When \multicolumn is used along with the
\cutinhead command, the \tablecolumns command must be used to specify
the number of columns in the table-otherwise the \cutinhead command
will not work properly.
This table also makes use of the \phn command to better align some of the

This user guide (aasguide.tex)
is also marked up with the AASTeX package,
although it is not exemplary as a scientific paper.

Many of the markup commands described in the preceding
sections are standard LaTeX commands. The reader who is
unfamiliar with their syntax is referred to the LaTeX
references works cited in the bibliography, in particular
Kopka and Daly [1999] and Lamport [1994].

Authors who wish to know the ins and outs of TeX itself
should read the TeXbook [Knuth, 1984].
This resource contains a good deal of information about
typography in general. Many details of mathematical typography are
discussed in Mathematics into Type by Swanson [1979].

5  Acknowledgments

AASTeX was designed and written by Chris Biemesderfer in 1988.
Substantial revisions were made by Lee Brotzman and Pierre
Landau when the package was updated to v4.0.
AASTeX was rewritten as a LaTeX2e
> class by Arthur Ogawa
for the v5.0 release. It was updated to v5.2 by
SR Nova Private Ltd.
The documentation has benefited from revisions by
Jeannette Barnes, Sara Zimmerman, and Greg Schwarz.


Abt, H. 1990, ApJ, 357, 1 (editorial)
Adobe Systems, Inc. 1999,

PostScript Language Reference Manual (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley)

Daly, P. 1998, Natural Sciences Citations and References
(natbib package documentation)
[41994Goossens, Mittelbach, and Samarin]
Goossens, M., Mittelbach, F., and Samarin, A. 1994,
The LaTeX Companion (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley)
Hahn, J. 1993, LaTeX for Everyone
(Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall)
Knuth, D. 1984, The TeXbook (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley).
Revised to cover TeX3, 1991.
[71999Kopka and Daly]
Kopka, H. and Daly, P. 1999, A Guide to LaTeX,
3rd edition, (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley)
Lamport, L. 1994, LaTeX: A Document Preparation System ,
2nd edition, (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley)
Swanson, E. 1979, Mathematics into Type
(Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society)